ES6特性中文版

文章目录

原文来自:ECMAScript 6 Features 中文版

Introduction 简介

ECMAScript 6, also known as ECMAScript 2015, is the upcoming version of the ECMAScript standard. This standard is targeting ratification in June 2015. ES6 is a significant update to the language, and the first update to the language since ES5 was standardized in 2009. Implementation of these features in major JavaScript engines is underway now.

ECMAScript 6(标准官方名称是 ECMAScript 2015) 是 ECMAScript 的下一代标准,预计将在 2015年6月 正式发布。ES6 的发布将是这门语言自2009年 ES5 正式发布以来的首次更新,是一次富有意义的更新。主流Javascript引擎中的这些新特性正在开发中。

See the draft ES6 standard for full specification of the ECMAScript 6 language.

若希望阅读 ECMAScript 6 语言的完整规范,请参见ES6标准草案

ES6 includes the following new features:

ES6 包含了以下这些新特性:

  • Arrows 箭头函数
  • classes 类
  • enhanced object literals 增强的对象字面量
  • template strings 模板字符串
  • destructuring 解构
  • default + rest + spread 默认参数+不定参数+参数展开
  • let + const let + const 操作符
  • iterators + for..of 迭代器 + for...of
  • generators 生成器
  • unicode 统一码
  • modules 模块
  • module loaders 模块加载器
  • map + set + weakmap + weakset 数据结构
  • proxies 代理
  • symbols 符号
  • subclassable built-ins 可子类化内建对象
  • promises 对象
  • math + number + string + object APIs
  • binary and octal literals 二进制和八进制字面量
  • reflect api 反射API
  • tail calls 尾调用

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ECMAScript 6 Features 特性

Arrows 箭头函数

Arrows are a function shorthand using the => syntax. They are syntactically similar to the related feature in C#, Java 8 and CoffeeScript. They support both expression and statement bodies. Unlike functions, arrows share the same lexical this as their surrounding code.

箭头函数是使用=>语法的函数简写形式。这在语法上与 C#、Java 8 和 CoffeeScript 的相关特性非常相似。它们同时支持表达式体和语句体。与(普通的)函数所不同的是,箭头函数和其上下文中的代码共享同一个具有词法作用域的this

// Expression bodies
// 表达式体
var odds = evens.map(v => v + 1);
var nums = evens.map((v, i) => v + i);
var pairs = evens.map(v => ({even: v, odd: v + 1}));

// Statement bodies
// 语句体
nums.forEach(v => {
  if (v % 5 === 0)
    fives.push(v);
});

// Lexical this
// 具有词法作用域的 this
var bob = {
  _name: "Bob",
  _friends: ["Amy", "Bob", "Cinne", "Dylan", "Ellen"],
  printFriends() {
    this._friends.forEach(f =>
      console.log(this._name + " knows " + f));
  }
}

Classes 类

ES6 classes are a simple sugar over the prototype-based OO pattern. Having a single convenient declarative form makes class patterns easier to use, and encourages interoperability. Classes support prototype-based inheritance, super calls, instance and static methods and constructors.

ES6 的类是在基于原型的面向对象模式之上的简单语法糖,它有唯一的、便捷的声明形式,这使得类模式更容易使用,并且鼓励了互操作性。class定义的类支持基于原型的继承、super 调用、实例和静态方法以及构造函数。

class SkinnedMesh extends THREE.Mesh {
  constructor(geometry, materials) {
    super(geometry, materials);

    this.idMatrix = SkinnedMesh.defaultMatrix();
    this.bones = [];
    this.boneMatrices = [];
    //...
  }
  update(camera) {
    //...
    super.update();
  }
  get boneCount() {
    return this.bones.length;
  }
  set matrixType(matrixType) {
    this.idMatrix = SkinnedMesh[matrixType]();
  }
  static defaultMatrix() {
    return new THREE.Matrix4();
  }
}

Enhanced Object Literals 增强的Object字面量

Object literals are extended to support setting the prototype at construction, shorthand for foo: foo assignments, defining methods, making super calls, and computing property names with expressions. Together, these also bring object literals and class declarations closer together, and let object-based design benefit from some of the same conveniences.

对象字面量被扩展以支持以下特性:在构建的时候设置原型、foo: foo赋值的简写形式、定义方法、进行super 调用以及使用表达式计算属性名称等。这样就使得对象字面量和类的声明的联系更加紧密,使得基于对象的设计更加便利。

var obj = {
    // __proto__
    __proto__: theProtoObj,
    // Shorthand for ‘handler: handler’
    // ‘handler: handler’ 的简写形式
    handler,
    // Methods
    toString() {
      // Super calls
      return "d " + super.toString();
    },
    // Computed (dynamic) property names
    // 计算所得的(动态的)属性名称
    [ 'prop_' + (() => 42)() ]: 42
};

Template Strings 模板字符串

Template strings provide syntactic sugar for constructing strings. This is similar to string interpolation features in Perl, Python and more. Optionally, a tag can be added to allow the string construction to be customized, avoiding injection attacks or constructing higher level data structures from string contents.

模板字符串提供构造字符串的语法糖,这与Perl、Python等许多语言中的字符串插值功能非常相似,你也可以通过添加标签(tag)来自定义构造字符串,避免注入攻击,或者基于字符串构建更高层次的数据结构。

// Basic literal string creation
// 基础字符串字面量的创建
`In JavaScript '\n' is a line-feed.`

// Multiline strings
// 多行字符串
`In JavaScript this is
 not legal.`

 // String interpolation
// 字符串插值
var name = "Bob", time = "today";
`Hello ${name}, how are you ${time}?`

// Construct an HTTP request prefix is used to interpret the replacements and construction
// 构造一个HTTP请求前缀用来解释替换和构造,大意就是可以构造一个通用的HTTP prefix并通过赋值生成最终的HTTP请求
GET`http://foo.org/bar?a=${a}&b=${b}
    Content-Type: application/json
    X-Credentials: ${credentials}
    { "foo": ${foo},
      "bar": ${bar}}`(myOnReadyStateChangeHandler);

Destructuring 解构

Destructuring allows binding using pattern matching, with support for matching arrays and objects. Destructuring is fail-soft, similar to standard object lookup foo["bar"], producing undefined values when not found.

解构允许在(变量-值)绑定时使用模式匹配,支持匹配数组和对象,解构支持失效弱化,与标准的对象查询foo["bar"]相似,当查询无结果时生成undefined值。

// list matching
// 列表匹配
var [a, , b] = [1,2,3];

// object matching
// 对象匹配
var { op: a, lhs: { op: b }, rhs: c }
       = getASTNode()

// object matching shorthand
// binds `op`, `lhs` and `rhs` in scope
// 对象匹配简写形式
var {op, lhs, rhs} = getASTNode()

// 上面作者给的示例看得云里雾里的,这里我再给出一个
function today() { return { d: 2, m: 3, y: 2015 }; }
var { m: month, y: year } = today(); // month = 3, year = 2015

// Can be used in parameter position
// 也可以作为参数使用
function g({name: x}) {
  console.log(x);
}
g({name: 5})

// Fail-soft destructuring
// 失效弱化解构,结果查询不到时定义为 undefined
var [a] = [];
a === undefined;

// Fail-soft destructuring with defaults
// 具备默认值的失效弱化解构
var [a = 1] = [];
a === 1;

Default + Rest + Spread 默认参数+不定参数+参数展开

Callee-evaluated default parameter values. Turn an array into consecutive arguments in a function call. Bind trailing parameters to an array. Rest replaces the need for arguments and addresses common cases more directly.

支持由被调用函数进行求值的参数默认值。 在函数调用时使用...运算符,可以将作为参数的数组拆解为连续的多个参数。 在函数定义时使用...运算符,则可以将函数尾部的多个参数绑定到一个数组中。 不定参数取代了arguments,并可更直接地应用于通常的用例中。

function f(x, y=12) {
  // y is 12 if not passed (or passed as undefined)
  return x + y;
}
f(3) == 15
function f(x, ...y) {
  // y is an Array
  return x * y.length;
}
f(3, "hello", true) == 6
function f(x, y, z) {
  return x + y + z;
}
// Pass each elem of array as argument
f(...[1,2,3]) == 6

Let + Const 操作符

Block-scoped binding constructs. let is the new var. const is single-assignment. Static restrictions prevent use before assignment.

let 和 const 是具有块级作用域的绑定用构造,let 是新的 var,只在块级作用域内有效,const单赋值,声明的是块级作用域的常量。此两种操作符具有静态限制,可以防止出现“在赋值之前使用”的错误。

function f() {
  {
    let x;
    {
      // okay, block scoped name
      const x = "sneaky";
      // error, const
      x = "foo";
    }
    // error, already declared in block
    let x = "inner";
  }
}

Iterators + For..Of 迭代器 + For..of 循环

Iterator objects enable custom iteration like CLR IEnumerable or Java Iterable. Generalize for..in to custom iterator-based iteration with for..of. Don’t require realizing an array, enabling lazy design patterns like LINQ.

迭代器对象允许像 CLI IEnumerable 或者 Java Iterable 一样自定义迭代器。将for..in转换为自定义的基于迭代器的形如for..of的迭代,不需要实现一个数组,支持像 LINQ 一样的惰性设计模式

let fibonacci = {
  [Symbol.iterator]() {
    let pre = 0, cur = 1;
    return {
      next() {
        [pre, cur] = [cur, pre + cur];
        return { done: false, value: cur }
      }
    }
  }
}

for (var n of fibonacci) {
  // truncate the sequence at 1000
  if (n > 1000)
    break;
  console.log(n);
}

Iteration is based on these duck-typed interfaces (using TypeScript type syntax for exposition only):

迭代器基于这些鸭子类型的接口 (此处使用TypeScript 的类型语法,仅用于阐述问题):

interface IteratorResult {
  done: boolean;
  value: any;
}
interface Iterator {
  next(): IteratorResult;
}
interface Iterable {
  [Symbol.iterator](): Iterator
}

Generators 生成器

Generators simplify iterator-authoring using function* and yield. A function declared as function* returns a Generator instance. Generators are subtypes of iterators which include additional next andthrow. These enable values to flow back into the generator, so yield is an expression form which returns a value (or throws).

生成器通过使用function*yield简化迭代器的编写, 形如function*的函数声明返回一个生成器实例,生成器是迭代器的子类型,迭代器包括附加的nextthrow,这使得值可以回流到生成器中,所以,yield是一个返回或抛出值的表达式形式。

Note: Can also be used to enable ‘await’-like async programming, see also ES7 await proposal. 注意:也可以被用作类似‘await’一样的异步编程中,具体细节查看ES7的await提案

var fibonacci = {
  [Symbol.iterator]: function*() {
    var pre = 0, cur = 1;
    for (;;) {
      var temp = pre;
      pre = cur;
      cur += temp;
      yield cur;
    }
  }
}

for (var n of fibonacci) {
  // truncate the sequence at 1000
  if (n > 1000)
    break;
  console.log(n);
}

The generator interface is (using TypeScript type syntax for exposition only): 生成器接口如下(此处使用TypeScript 的类型语法,仅用于阐述问题):

interface Generator extends Iterator {
    next(value?: any): IteratorResult;
    throw(exception: any);
}

Unicode 统一码

Non-breaking additions to support full Unicode, including new Unicode literal form in strings and new RegExp u mode to handle code points, as well as new APIs to process strings at the 21bit code points level. These additions support building global apps in JavaScript.

Non-breaking additions to support full Unicode

这句看了半天不知道作者想要表达什么,我就查了下资料,有一种可能是: 增加不换行空格的特性以全面支持Unicode,还有一种可能是:渐进增强地、非破坏性地全面支持Unicode,也就是说,新加入的特性并不影响老的代码的使用。我个人比较倾向于第二种解读。@sumhat提示说第二种解读是正确的

(续)字符串支持新的Unicode文本形式,也增加了新的正则表达式修饰符u来处理码位,同时,新的API可以在21bit码位级别上处理字符串,增加这些支持后可以使用 Javascript 构建全球化的应用。 注:关于Unicode推荐阅读复杂的Unicode,疑惑的Python

// same as ES5.1
// 与 ES5.1 相同
"".length == 2

// new RegExp behaviour, opt-in ‘u’
// 新的正则表达式行为,使用可选的‘u’修饰符
"".match(/./u)[0].length == 2

// new form
// ES5.1的写法是`反斜杠+u+码点`,新的形式可以通过添加一组大括号`{}`来表示超过四字节的码点
"\u{20BB7}"==""=="\uD842\uDFB7"

// new String ops
// 新的字符串处理方法
"".codePointAt(0) == 0x20BB7

// for-of iterates code points
// foo-of 以码位为单位进行迭代
for(var c of "") {
  console.log(c);
}

Modules 模块

Language-level support for modules for component definition. Codifies patterns from popular JavaScript module loaders (AMD, CommonJS). Runtime behaviour defined by a host-defined default loader. Implicitly async model – no code executes until requested modules are available and processed.

ES6 在语言层面上支持使用模块来进行组件定义,将流行的JavaScript模块加载器(AMD、CommonJS)中的模式固化到了语言中。运行时行为由宿主定义的默认加载器定义,隐式异步模型 - 直到(全部)请求的模块均可用且经处理后,才会执行(当前模块内的)代码。

// lib/math.js
export function sum(x, y) {
  return x + y;
}
export var pi = 3.141593;
// app.js
import * as math from "lib/math";
alert("2π = " + math.sum(math.pi, math.pi));
// otherApp.js
import {sum, pi} from "lib/math";
alert("2π = " + sum(pi, pi));

Some additional features include export default and export *:

额外的新特性,包括export default以及export *

// lib/mathplusplus.js
export * from "lib/math";
export var e = 2.71828182846;
export default function(x) {
    return Math.log(x);
}
// app.js
import ln, {pi, e} from "lib/mathplusplus";
alert("2π = " + ln(e)*pi*2);

Module Loaders 模块加载器

Module loaders support:

  • Dynamic loading
  • State isolation
  • Global namespace isolation
  • Compilation hooks
  • Nested virtualization

模块加载器支持:

The default module loader can be configured, and new loaders can be constructed to evaluate and load code in isolated or constrained contexts.

默认的模块加载器是可配置的,也可以构建新的加载器,对在隔离和受限上下文中的代码进行求值和加载。

// Dynamic loading – ‘System’ is default loader
// 动态加载 - ‘System’ 是默认的加载器
System.import('lib/math').then(function(m) {
  alert("2π = " + m.sum(m.pi, m.pi));
});

// Create execution sandboxes – new Loaders
// 创建一个执行沙箱- 新的加载器
var loader = new Loader({
  global: fixup(window) // replace ‘console.log’
});
loader.eval("console.log('hello world!');");

// Directly manipulate module cache
// 直接操作模块缓存
System.get('jquery');
System.set('jquery', Module({$: $})); // WARNING: not yet finalized 警告:此部分的设计尚未最终定稿

Map + Set + WeakMap + WeakSet 数据结构

Efficient data structures for common algorithms. WeakMaps provides leak-free object-key’d side tables. 用于实现常见算法的高效数据结构,WeakMaps提供不会泄露的对象键(对象作为键名,而且键名指向对象)索引表 注:所谓的不会泄露,指的是对应的对象可能会被自动回收,回收后WeakMaps自动移除对应的键值对,有助于防止内存泄露

// Sets
var s = new Set();
s.add("hello").add("goodbye").add("hello");
s.size === 2;
s.has("hello") === true;

// Maps
var m = new Map();
m.set("hello", 42);
m.set(s, 34);
m.get(s) == 34;

// Weak Maps
var wm = new WeakMap();
wm.set(s, { extra: 42 });
wm.size === undefined

// Weak Sets
var ws = new WeakSet();
ws.add({ data: 42 });
// Because the added object has no other references, it will not be held in the set
// 由于所加入的对象没有其他引用,故在此集合内不会保留之。

Proxies 代理

Proxies enable creation of objects with the full range of behaviors available to host objects. Can be used for interception, object virtualization, logging/profiling, etc.

代理可以创造一个具备宿主对象全部可用行为的对象。可用于拦截、对象虚拟化、日志/分析等。

// Proxying a normal object
// 代理一个普通对象
var target = {};
var handler = {
  get: function (receiver, name) {
    return `Hello, ${name}!`;
  }
};

var p = new Proxy(target, handler);
p.world === 'Hello, world!';
// Proxying a function object
// 代理一个函数对象
var target = function () { return 'I am the target'; };
var handler = {
  apply: function (receiver, ...args) {
    return 'I am the proxy';
  }
};

var p = new Proxy(target, handler);
p() === 'I am the proxy';

There are traps available for all of the runtime-level meta-operations:

所有运行时级别的元操作都有对应的陷阱(使得这些操作都可以被代理):

var handler =
{
  get:...,
  set:...,
  has:...,
  deleteProperty:...,
  apply:...,
  construct:...,
  getOwnPropertyDescriptor:...,
  defineProperty:...,
  getPrototypeOf:...,
  setPrototypeOf:...,
  enumerate:...,
  ownKeys:...,
  preventExtensions:...,
  isExtensible:...
}

Symbols 符号

Symbols enable access control for object state. Symbols allow properties to be keyed by either string(as in ES5) or symbol. Symbols are a new primitive type. Optional name parameter used in debugging - but is not part of identity. Symbols are unique (like gensym), but not private since they are exposed via reflection features like Object.getOwnPropertySymbols.

符号(Symbol) 能够实现针对对象状态的访问控制,允许使用string(与ES5相同)或symbol作为键来访问属性。符号是一个新的原语类型,可选的name参数可以用于调试——但并不是符号身份的一部分。符号是独一无二的(如同gensym(所产生的符号)),但不是私有的,因为它们可以通过类似Object.getOwnPropertySymbols的反射特性暴露出来。

var MyClass = (function() {

  // module scoped symbol
  // 具有模块作用域的符号
  var key = Symbol("key");

  function MyClass(privateData) {
    this[key] = privateData;
  }

  MyClass.prototype = {
    doStuff: function() {
      ... this[key] ...
    }
  };

  return MyClass;
})();

var c = new MyClass("hello")
c["key"] === undefined

可子类化的内建对象

In ES6, built-ins like Array, Date and DOM Elements can be subclassed.

在 ES6 中,内建对象,如ArrayDate以及DOM元素可以被子类化。

Object construction for a function named Ctor now uses two-phases (both virtually dispatched):

  • Call Ctor[@@create] to allocate the object, installing any special behavior
  • Invoke constructor on new instance to initialize

针对名为Ctor的函数,其对应的对象的构造现在分为两个阶段(这两个阶段都使用虚分派):

  • 调用Ctor[@@create]为对象分配空间,并插入特殊的行为
  • 在新实例上调用构造函数来进行初始化

The known @@create symbol is available via Symbol.create. Built-ins now expose their @@createexplicitly.

已知的@@create符号可以通过Symbol.create来使用,内建对象现在显式暴露它们的@@create

// Pseudo-code of Array
// Array伪代码
class Array {
    constructor(...args) { /* ... */ }
    static [Symbol.create]() {
        // Install special [[DefineOwnProperty]]
        // to magically update 'length'
    }
}

// User code of Array subclass
// Array子类的用户代码
class MyArray extends Array {
    constructor(...args) { super(...args); }
}

// Two-phase 'new':
// 1) Call @@create to allocate object
// 2) Invoke constructor on new instance

// 两阶段的'new':
// 1) 调用@@create来为对象分配空间
// 2) 在新实例上调用构造函数
var arr = new MyArray();
arr[1] = 12;
arr.length == 2

Math + Number + String + Object APIs 扩展

Many new library additions, including core Math libraries, Array conversion helpers, String helpers, and Object.assign for copying.

新加入了许多库,包括核心数学库,进行数组转换的协助函数,字符串 helper,以及用来进行拷贝的Object.assign。

Number.EPSILON
Number.isInteger(Infinity) // false
Number.isNaN("NaN") // false

Math.acosh(3) // 1.762747174039086
Math.hypot(3, 4) // 5
Math.imul(Math.pow(2, 32) - 1, Math.pow(2, 32) - 2) // 2

"abcde".includes("cd") // true
"abc".repeat(3) // "abcabcabc"

Array.from(document.querySelectorAll('*')) // Returns a real Array 返回一个真正的Array
Array.of(1, 2, 3) // Similar to new Array(...), but without special one-arg behavior 与Array(...)类似,但只有一个参数时,并不会有特殊行为。
[0, 0, 0].fill(7, 1) // [0,7,7]
[1, 2, 3].find(x => x == 3) // 3
[1, 2, 3].findIndex(x => x == 2) // 1
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5].copyWithin(3, 0) // [1, 2, 3, 1, 2]
["a", "b", "c"].entries() // iterator [0, "a"], [1,"b"], [2,"c"]
["a", "b", "c"].keys() // iterator 0, 1, 2
["a", "b", "c"].values() // iterator "a", "b", "c"

Object.assign(Point, { origin: new Point(0,0) })

Binary and Octal Literals 二进制和八进制字面量

Two new numeric literal forms are added for binary (b) and octal (o).

加入对二进制(b)和八进制(o)字面量的支持。

0b111110111 === 503 // true
0o767 === 503 // true

Promises 对象

Promises are a library for asynchronous programming. Promises are a first class representation of a value that may be made available in the future. Promises are used in many existing JavaScript libraries.

Promise是用来进行异步编程的库。Promise是对一个“将来可能会变得可用”的值的第一类表示,Promise被使用在现有的许多JavaScript库中。

function timeout(duration = 0) {
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
        setTimeout(resolve, duration);
    })
}

var p = timeout(1000).then(() => {
    return timeout(2000);
}).then(() => {
    throw new Error("hmm");
}).catch(err => {
    return Promise.all([timeout(100), timeout(200)]);
})

Reflect API 反射API

Full reflection API exposing the runtime-level meta-operations on objects. This is effectively the inverse of the Proxy API, and allows making calls corresponding to the same meta-operations as the proxy traps. Especially useful for implementing proxies.

完整的反射API。此API在对象上暴露了运行时级别的元操作,从效果上来说,这是一个反代理API,并允许调用与代理陷阱中相同的元操作。实现代理非常有用。

// No sample yet

Tail Calls 尾调用

Calls in tail-position are guaranteed to not grow the stack unboundedly. Makes recursive algorithms safe in the face of unbounded inputs.

(ES6)保证尾部调用时栈不会无限增长,这使得递归算法在面对未作限制的输入时,能够安全地执行。

function factorial(n, acc = 1) {
    'use strict';
    if (n <= 1) return acc;
    return factorial(n - 1, n * acc);
}

// Stack overflow in most implementations today,
// but safe on arbitrary inputs in ES6
// 栈溢出存在于现在绝大多数的实现中,
// 但是在 ES6 中,针对任意的输入都很安全
factorial(100000)

编程语言进化到现阶段沉淀了许多成熟方案,例如接口,duck-typed,映射等等,还有许多不明觉厉的概念,每个语言都争相支持这些语言设计的新方案,所以 ES6 的一部分特性看起来很像 Go

原创文章:ES6特性中文版 ,未经许可,禁止转载,©版权所有
原文出处:前端开发博客 (http://caibaojian.com/es6.html)

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